China: the first country in the world to use the principle of bearings.
Knowing that this year's World Cup champion is France does not necessarily mean that Cuju originated in China; knowing that the best bearings are made in Sweden does not necessarily mean that China first used the bearing principle.
The bearing girl today wrote a big stroke to prepare for a major event -- write a history of the development of China's bearings. And I would like to invite your children to enjoy their faces.
Brief history of China bearings
China was the first country to invent bearings。 As early as 4000 years ago in the Xia and Shang Dynasties, China had cars and began to use sliding bearings。
During the Zhou Dynasty, bearing lubrication technology was invented by using animal oil. During the Warring States Period, metal bearing bushes were used in cars, and sliding bearings composed of wood and metal were appeared.
In the murals of the ancient tombs of the Han Dynasty, we can see the spinning wheel made of bearing principle. The bearing of the spinning wheel is very simple. The round wooden shaft rotates in the round hole of the support. Because of sliding friction between the shaft and the bearing, it is more difficult for people to shake, and it also makes a creaking noise.
In the Yuan Dynasty, scientist Guo Shoujing invented the slewing bearing (rotary bearing) technology.
In the Qing Dynasty, cylindrical roller bearings with modern bearing structure were made.
During the period of the Republic of China, China began to mass-produce bearings, and formed Wafangdian, Shanghai two major bearing production bases.
After the founding of New China, the rapid development of China's bearing industry has finally laid the overall pattern of China's current bearing industry development. Today, China has become the world's third largest bearing production and sales country.
Ceramic wheel: the earliest user of bearing principle
A pottery wheel is a disc with an upright rotating shaft, in which a good clay or roughcast is placed in the center of the wheel to rotate the wheel, while the clay is pinched by hand or shaped with tools and the surface of the clay is smooth。
Ceramic wheel is divided into fast wheel and slow wheel according to its rotation speed. Of course, fast wheel is developed on the basis of slow wheel.
▲Wooden pottery wheel base found at crossing Lake Bridge Cultural Site
According to the latest archaeological records, the slow wheel was born, or evolved, 8,000 years ago.
The discovery of wooden pottery wheel base at the cultural site of the Lake Crossing Bridge in March 2010 confirms that China's pottery wheel technology preceded the Western Asia River Basin by more than 2000 years.
That is to say, China started to use bearings earlier than West Asia, or the principle of bearing.
Bearing is also elegant: Bearings in Book of Songs
The lubrication of bearings appeared in the Book of Songs 1100-600 BC.
The appearance of sliding bearings raises the need for lubrication or promotes the development of tribology.
It is known that lubrication is commonly used in ancient cars, but the appearance of lubrication is far less obvious than the appearance of cars. Therefore, it is very difficult to discuss exactly the time when lubrication appears. The earliest record of lubrication is found in the Book of Songs after searching and searching for information.
The Book of Songs is the first collection of poems in China. Therefore, the great poem originated from the beginning of the week to the middle of the spring and Autumn period, that is, from eleventh Century BC to sixth Century BC.
In the chapter of Book of Songs wind spring, there are "carrying fat" and "returning cars". Is it good for health? It was interpreted in ancient times as the "axle end key".
In ancient cars, it is equivalent to what we now call pins, through the shaft end, you can "jurisdiction" the wheel, so that the wheel axial fixed, and "grease" is of course lubricant, "return" is home, "stride" is fast.
The poems translated into modern Chinese are: lubricate the axle with grease, check the pin at the end of the axle, drive away, and take me home. Hurry to your hometown! Don't let me have a guilty conscience.
Guo Shoujing: inventor of China's rolling bearing
Rolling bearings appear late. It was invented by Guo Shoujing, a scientist in Yuan Dynasty.
In the thirteen year (1276), the Yuan Dynasty decided to reform the calendar, and Guo Shoujing and Wang chaired him。 Guo Shoujing believed that in order to create a good calendar, astronomical observation is the first step, and observation can not be separated from instruments, so he first presided over the production of instruments。
After his diligent research, he has designed and manufactured nearly 20 kinds of astronomical instruments, of which the simple instrument is a revolutionary reform of the traditional Hun instrument.
Guo Shoujing installed four small cylinders between the two rings of Hunyi, forming a roller bearing. This structure is the same as the modern "roller bearing" to reduce friction resistance principle, which can be said to be the original rolling bearing.
The instrument, which is now displayed at the Purple Mountain Observatory in Nanjing, is copied from the original instrument of the Yuan Dynasty during the Ming Dynasty.
As far as roller bearings are concerned, the invention of our country was about 200 years earlier than that of the West.
Chinese bearings in modern history
▲Distribution map of bearing production in Republic of China (incomplete map, intercept only required)
In the Swedish SKF bearing exhibition hall, there is a set of bearings in Qing Dynasty in China. This is a set of cylindrical roller bearings, bearing rings, cages, rollers and modern bearings are no different.
▲Cylindrical roller bearings manufactured in China in eighteenth Century
From 1937 to 1945, more than ten workshops, such as Qin Fuxing Hardware, Shanghai Jinchang Iron Factory, Rongtai New Machinery Factory, Qin Fuxing Machinery Factory, Jinxing Iron Factory, Yuan Xingchang Machinery Factory and Jincheng Machinery Factory, began to manufacture bearings, thus laying the foundation for the production of Shanghai national bearings。
At that time, bearings produced by various manufacturers had brands, such as the "Earth" brand bearings produced by Jinxing Iron Works, the "YSC" brand bearings produced by Yuanxing Chang Machinery Factory, the "Xiang" brand bearings produced by Rongtai Xieji Hardware Factory, and the SRF bearing produced by Qinfuxing Machinery Factory.
At that time, the bearings produced in Shanghai were mainly 203, 204, 1204, 1205 and more than a dozen types of bearings, sold to Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Tianjin and other places, used for flower rolling machine, tobacco machine, spindle of textile machine, electric lamp and other ancillary.
Qin Furong: China bearing King
▲"China bearing king" Qin Furong
Qin Furong, Wuxi, Jiangsu. In 1926, Tai Fu Xing Hardware (now Shanghai Rolling Bearing Factory) was founded on No. 49 Guili, Manting Square. It imported bearings from Japan.
Later, Yu Chang Hardware was set up。 In 1929, the workshop was set up for the old bearing repair business。
In 1937, Qin Fuxing Hardware trial-produced the first set of domestic "1308" double-row self-aligning ball bearings, the product brand SRF.
After the August 13 War, he opened the Qin Fu Ji Machinery Factory at No. 1 Lane 258 Yuyuan Road, and then set up the Qin Fu Ji Hardware Shaft Leading Iron Factory at No. 51 Gao Dun Street, Luxiangyuan Road, Nanshi, specializing in the manufacture and sale of bearings with the trademark of "Double Horses".
Since the 31 years of the Republic of China, the "double horses" registered trademark, the main models have 310, 1301, 1508, 1509, 1510, 1511, 1612, 6204, 6205, 6206 and 8 types.
In addition to the supply of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, but also exported to Shandong, Henan and other places, for milling, flower rolling, pumping and other agricultural machinery supporting.
Write in the end
We have lost the "first-mover advantage" in football, only hope that in the field of bearings, we can continue to exert our strength to catch up with the European and American bearing countries.
The history of bearings in China is very long, including the development of bearings in ancient dynasties, the establishment of major bearing bases in modern times and after the founding of New China...
The space is limited, and it is difficult for an article to carry the weight of millennial history.
Predict the situation and how things will happen, and listen to the next stage.